Friday, March 31, 2017


Trichomonas vaginalis - Ilustration
Trichomoniasis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI). Approximately 5 million women in the United States are infected annually. This may actually be an underestimate of the incidence of trichomoniasis. Screening methods are relatively insensitive and this infection is often not reported. It is caused by a protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis. Infection with T vaginalis is easily transmitted sexually and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV. The mechanism of action is thought to be an increase in the vaginal secretions of CD4+ cells, which serve as target cells for the HIV virus. Furthermore, trichomoniasis infection is also associated with coinfection with other STIs.


Thursday, March 30, 2017

Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adult

Nephrotic Syndrome
By Laurie Barclay, MD

Recommendations for primary care clinicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of nephrotic syndrome in adults are reviewed in the November 15 issue of the American Family Physician.

"In nephrotic syndrome, a variety of disorders cause proteinuria, often resulting in marked edema and hypoalbuminemia," write Charles Kodner, MD, from the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky. "Hyperlipidemia is a common associated finding. Family physicians may encounter persons with nephrotic syndrome from primary (idiopathic) renal disease or a number of secondary causes, and should initiate appropriate diagnostic workup and medical management pending specialist consultation."

Nephrotic syndrome may be classified as primary (or idiopathic) renal disease, or it may be secondary to various causes. The most common primary causes in adults are focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017



Amoebiasis is an infection of the large intestine produced by Entamoeba histolytica.

There are 7 species of amoeba that naturally parasitize the human mouth and intestine, but of these only E. histolytica causes disease. The organism may behave as a parasite (by harming the host) or as a commensal (when it does no harm to the host).


Worldwide distribution

It is estimated that 10% of the world’s population is infected with amoebae. More prevalent in tropical areas where invasive amoebic infection is common. The presence of pathological zymodemes in tropics and poor sanitation is responsible for this state of affairs.

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VC) is the most common cause of infectious vaginitis, accounting for between 40% and 50% of all cases. It may cause genital discomfort, loss of productivity, reduced sexual pleasure, psychological problems, and medical expenses.[36] Seventy-five percent of reproductive-age women will have at least one episode of VC in their lifetime, and 40% to 45% will have two or more episodes.[1,38]

Candidal infection is most often caused by Candida albicans, a fungal organism that is a part of the normal flora of the vagina of reproductive-age woman, but causes >90% of cases of symptomatic vaginitis. However, infection can also be caused by other species, such as C glabrata and C tropicalis. The latter two types often are more resistant to treatment.[25] The relationship between colonization of the vagina (growth of C albicans on vaginal culture) and vaginitis symptoms is not understood. Certain factors are predictive of yeast colonization: positive HIV status, having diabetes, recent IV drug use, and recent antibiotic use.[1,37] It is thought that other host factors play a role in whether or not women are symptomatic because a large number of women who are colonized have no symptoms.[37] VC is classified as uncomplicated or complicated based on frequency, symptoms, microbiology, and response to treatment ( Table 3 ).

How to Heal Your Disease

Healing Disease
Healing takes place when the conditions are right, doesn't this hold true for most if not all things ? Let's look at the conditions that enable healing to take place; Answer the following questions after deep contemplation, listening to inner feelings, you are after the unconscious answers. It is the unconscious that enables healing.

1. Desire - You must desire what you want. Write out what you want

2. What then ? - If you had this goal fully and completely, what then ?.

What then ? What then ?

3. Specific - Know exactly what you want. Look at what you wrote above. Imagine your goal with all your senses. See how you live with your goal. Notice the changes in your life as a result of achieving this goal. Do you still want it ? If you had achieved your goal right now, would you keep it ? would you continue to keep the goal for many years to come ?.

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